Apodiformes

This bird order contains three families: Apodidae (swifts), Hemiprocnidae (tree swifts) and hummingbirds (Trochilidae). Hybridization is clearly more common between hummingbirds compared to the swifts. A phylogenetic study of the genera Apus and Tachymarptis also concluded that “introgression […] was ruled out as an explanation” (Packert et al., 2012).

The early literature on hummingbird hybrids is filled with morphological descriptions of various hybrid combinations (Berlioz, 1930; Short & Phillips, 1966; Taylor, 1909; Thayer & Bangs, 1907; Williamson, 1957), nicely summarized by Banks and Johnson (1961). The high incidence of hybrid hummingbirds led to discussions on generic classification of these birds (Ridgway, 1909; Taylor, 1909). One study also documented the behaviour of a hybrid hummingbird (Wells, Bradley & Baptista, 1978). More recent morphological and taxonomic work can be attributed to Gary Graves (1996; 1997; 1998a; 1998b; 1999; 2001; 2003a; 2003b; 2003c; 2004; 2006; 2007a; 2007b; 1996; 1990). Recently, Donegan and Dávalos (2011) described a possible hybrid between Fawn-breasted Brilliant (Heliodoxa rubinoides) and Empress Brilliant (H. imperatrix) in Colombia.

Genetic studies on hummingbird hybridization have only recently appeared, mainly focusing on the dynamics between the Chilean Woodstar (Eulidia yarrelli) and the invasive Peruvian Sheartail (Thaumastura cora) (van Dongen et al., 2013; van Dongen, Vasquez & Winkler, 2012).

Thaumastura cora

Thaumastura cora

 

Amazilia

A phylogeographic study of three hummingbird species (A. beryllina, A. cyanura and A. saucerottei) supports a scenario of secondary contact and range contact during the Pleistocene. Microsatellites suggest three genetic clusters (isolated by the Isthmus and the Nicaraguan Depression) with some indications of admixture, whereas mtDNA shows evidence for recent divergence and asymmetrical gene flow (Jiménez & Ornelas, 2016).

 

References

Banks, R. C. & Johnson, N. K. (1961). A review of North American hybrid hummingbirds. Condor, 3-28.

Berlioz, J. (1930). A New Hummingbird Hybrid, Calypte anna X Stellula calliope.< Condor, XXXII, July, 1930. From Lower California, but with comments also upon hybrids previously taken in California, 215.

Donegan, T. & Dávalos, L. (2011). An apparent hybrid Heliodoxa hummingbird from the West Andes of Colombia. Colombiana, 20.

Graves, G. R. (1996). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae). 2. Hybrid origin of Eriocnemis soderstromi Butler. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109, 764-769.

Graves, G. R. (1997). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) .4. Hybrid origin of Calothorax decoratus Gould. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110, 320-325.

Graves, G. R. (1998a). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 5. Probable hybrid origin of Amazilia distans Wetmore & Phelps. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111, 28-34.

Graves, G. R. (1998b). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 6. An intergeneric hybrid, Aglaiocercus kingi x Metallura tyrianthina, from Venezuela. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 111, 511-520.

Graves, G. R. (1999). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 8. A provisional hypothesis for the hybrid origin of Zodalia glyceria (Gould, 1858). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 112, 491-502.

Graves, G. R. (2001). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 9. Confirmation of the hybrid origin of Coeligena purpurea Gould, 1854. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 114, 42-50.

Graves, G. R. (2003a). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 10. Cyanomyia salvini Brewster, 1893, is an intergeneric hybrid of Amazilia violiceps and Cynanthus latirostris. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116, 293-300.

Graves, G. R. (2003b). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 11. Documentation of an intergeneric woodstar hybrid, Calliphlox mitchellii x Chaetocercus mulsant. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116, 820-826.

Graves, G. R. (2003c). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 12. Amazilia bangsi Ridgway, 1910, is an intrageneric hybrid, Amazilia tzacatl x Amazilia rutila. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 116, 847-852.

Graves, G. R. (2004). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 13. An undescribed intrageneric combination, Heliodoxa imperatrix x Heliodoxa jacula. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117, 10-16.

Graves, G. R. (2006). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 14. New perspectives on Sefton’s specimen (Calypte costae X Selasphorus platycercus) from the Rincon Mountains, southeastern Arizona. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 119, 516-521.

Graves, G. R. (2007a). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 15. A new intergeneric hybrid (Hylocharis leucotis X Selasphorus platycercus) from the Huachuca Mountains, southeastern Arizona. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 120, 99-105.

Graves, G. R. (2007b). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves : Trochilidae). 16. Characterization of a striking intergeneric hybrid (Lampornis clemencide X Calypte anna) from Ramsey Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, southeastern Arizona. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 120, 106-112.

Graves, G. R. & Newfield, N. L. (1996). Diagnoses of hybrid hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae) .1. Characterization of Calypte anna x Stellula calliope and the possible effects of egg volume on hybridization potential. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109, 755-763.

Graves, G. R. & Zusi, R. L. (1990). AN INTERGENERIC HYBRID HUMMINGBIRD (HELIODOXA-LEADBEATERI X HELIANGELUS-AMETHYSTICOLLIS) FROM NORTHERN COLOMBIA. Condor 92, 754-760.

Jiménez, R. A. & Ornelas, J. F. (2016). Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective. PeerJ 4, e1556.

Packert, M., Martens, J., Wink, M., Feigl, A. & Tietze, D. T. (2012). Molecular phylogeny of Old World swifts (Aves: Apodiformes, Apodidae, Apus and Tachymarptis) based on mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63, 606-616.

Ridgway, R. (1909). Hybridism and generic characters in the Trochilidae. The Auk, 440-442.

Short, L. L. & Phillips, A. R. (1966). More Hybrid Hummingbirds from United States. Auk 83, 253-&.

Taylor, W. P. (1909). An instance of hybridization in hummingbirds, with remarks on the weight of generic characters in the Trochilidae. The Auk, 291-293.

Thayer, J. E. & Bangs, O. (1907). Another Hybrid Hummingbird-Selasphorus Rufus & Atthis Calliope-from California.

van Dongen, W. F. D., Lazzoni, I., Winkler, H., Vasquez, R. A. & Estades, C. F. (2013). Behavioural and genetic interactions between an endangered and a recently-arrived hummingbird. Biological Invasions 15, 1155-1168.

van Dongen, W. F. D., Vasquez, R. A. & Winkler, H. (2012). The use of microsatellite loci for accurate hybrid detection in a recent contact zone between an endangered and a recently-arrived hummingbird. Journal of Ornithology 153, 585-592.

Wells, S., Bradley, R. A. & Baptista, L. F. (1978). Hybridization in Calypte Hummingbirds. Auk 95, 537-549.

Williamson, F. S. (1957). Hybrids of the Anna and Allen hummingbirds. Condor, 118-123.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s