Kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. Hybridization between several species has been suggested.

List of Hybrids per Genus


Scientific Literature

The population of kiwis on Kapiti Island might be of hybrid origin: Northern Brown Kiwi (A. mantelli) x  Southern Brown Kiwi (A. australis). A bird from the Franz Josef township was a hybrid between Little Spotted Kiwi (A. owenii) and Southern Brown Kiwi (Herbert & Daugherty, 2002). A phylogeographic study using ancient DNA suggested that the decline of Little Spotted Kiwi might have increased the probability of hybridization with other species (Shepherd et al., 2012).


Southern Brown Kiwi © Glen Fergus | Wikimedia Commons



Herbert, J., & Daugherty, C. H. (2002). Genetic variation, systematics and management of kiwi (Apteryx spp.). In: Some early 1990s studies in kiwi (ed. Overmars, F.), pp.10-33.

Shepherd, L. D., Worthy, T. H., Tennyson, A. J., Scofield, R. P., Ramstad, K. M., & Lambert, D. M. (2012). Ancient DNA analyses reveal contrasting phylogeographic patterns amongst kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and a recently extinct lineage of spotted kiwi. PLoS One7(8):e42384.